Infographic: The Ten Practices of DesOps (aka. DesignOps)

 

Download the PDF version here: https://www.slideshare.net/MobileWish/the-ten-practices-of-desops-aka-designops

©2018,”The Ten Commandments of DesOps” by Samir Dash.
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License

Infographic: The Ten Commandments of DesOps

 

Download the PDF version here: https://www.slideshare.net/MobileWish/the-ten-commandments-of-desops

©2018,”The Ten Commandments of DesOps” by Samir Dash.
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License

The “When/If – Then” Tool to Capture Hypothesis


(This article was originally published onApril 29, 2018 Linkedin Blog at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/desops-next-wave-design-part-10-whenif-tool-capture-samir-dash/


As I mentioned in the previous article, the assumptions or the hypothesis can be made as a formalized statement of “if …. then” or “when … then” kind of format. To use ensure that this is captured correctly during collaborative sessions and within the design team, I have been using the same and some variation of the same format as a tool which I call “When/If – Then” Tool. This is a simple tool that can be very effective during collaborative sessions, to capture the assumptions that form the basis of why we believe that how the certain aspect of user pain-points and user needs should be translated into solutions using specific aspects.

Basically, this tool was helpful than the traditional elaborative templates to capture assumptions, as it was straightforward and can be used with a minimal explanation to a cross-functional crowd, a large portion of such population may not be accustomed towards the use the typical Tools and methodologies. The “When/If – Then” Tool is synonymous with the typical cause-and-effect kind of flow that is understood by and large and required very minimal explanation, and can be like any other UCD tools, can be constructed using simple post-its or printed formats.

Here is a post-it version of a barebone “When/If – Then” Tool:

Following is the basic format of this tool that has primarily 3 boxes — the left hand spanning column represents the persona or the target user (even segment given a larger scope from the market perspective) whereas the right-hand side boxes represent “When” or “If” part of the assumption and the lower box “Then” forms the outcome aspect of the assumption or hypothesis.

You can download a printable PDF of the template at http://desops.io/2018/05/07/when-if-then-tool-printable-version-for-a4-size-paper/

Basically, the above template helps you in completing an activity to frame your Hypothesis statement that are key to the the whole hypothesis-driven design (HDD) methodology. Now it is important that this tool can be applied to two-part blocks that can be used seeing as what you assumed versus what outcome have you got throughout experimentation.

A friend of mine asked me a valid question that it is fair to assume that HDD based approach as informs the assumption as a part of the course correction, whether it would replace the research from the process? My view on this is that the research (in the traditional definition like user and market research etc. ) has a key role in the process, as it is a mechanism to inform the stakeholder to create a vision. Technically a vision, itself is a set of hypotheses formulated by the stakeholder or the product manager. So it has a unique role in the process at the beginning of each cycle of the iterative process (let’s say to contribute to new requirements that flows down from the vision) and will stay. However, the hypothesis-driven design (HDD) helps in making a formalized approach and adds a mechanism to ensure the feedback-loop that informs these research or chunks-of-research that happens along the way in a structured and non-ambiguous way that enriches the research involving the additional validation process with evidence. Which acts as a catalyst to improve the efficiency of the research in a positive way. So essentially research is happening organically throughout the process in an on-going manner.

In the next article of the series, I will continue the exploration on the same topics. Keep in touch.

(c) 2018, Samir Dash. All rights reserved.

Engineering and Design Processes: Usability Engineering vs. Usability Design


(Originally first published on July 2, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140702065138-9377042-engineering-and-design-processes-usability-engineering-vs-usability-design/ )

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


Usability Engineering

Usability Engineering began to emerge as a distinct set of “professional practice” in the mid- to late 1980s. The majority of the professionals of this practices were from varied backgrounds such as Computer Science or in a sub-field of Psychology such as Perception, Cognition or Human Factors. Today this field is being populated from some newer discipline such as Cognitive Science and Human-Computer Interaction.

Usability engineering, is defined by Preece as

‘an approach to system design in which levels of usability are specified and defined quantitatively in advance, and the system is engineered towards these measures, which are known as metrics.’

The whole concept of Usability Engineering focuses on the “metrics for measuring usability”.

As the emphasis on usability metrics through “analysis and evaluation”is mostly the soul focus of this process, there is not enough focus on the actual design process. In this process the usability is tried to be attained through “engineering and quantifiable methods and techniques” rather than “designing the way to usability”.

Also the “usability engineering”focuses only on providing range of techniques to analyze users, specify usability goals, evaluate designs, but it does not address the whole development process.It has more of a focus on “assessing and making recommendations to improve usability than it does on design, though Usability Engineers may still engage in design to some extent, particularly design of wire-frames or other prototypes”.

The usability engineering mostly seen as a separate activity that can be plugged into different SDLC models as a separate set of activities from a process-oriented perspective.

The Usability Engineering conducts evaluations through the following tools and methodologies:

  1. usability testing
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. questionnaires/surveys
  5. cognitive walkthroughs
  6. heuristic evaluations
  7. RITE method
  8. cognitive task analysis
  9. contextual inquiry
  10. Think aloud protocol

User-Centered Systems Design (UCSD)

User-Centered Systems Design (UCDS) is set of “usability design” process focusing on usability throughout “the entire development process and further throughout the system life cycle”. It is based on the following key principle:

  1. User focus: The goals of the activity, the work domain or context of use, the users’ goals, tasksand needs should control the development.
  2. Active user involvement: Representative users should actively participate, early and continuously throughout the entire development process and throughout the system life cycle.
  3. Evolutionary systems development: The systems development should be both iterative and incremental.
  4. Simple design representations: The design must be represented in such ways that it can be easily understood by users and all other stakeholders.
  5. Prototyping: Early and continuously, prototypes should be used to visualize and evaluate ideas and design solutions in cooperation with the users.
  6. Evaluate use in context: Baseline usability goals and design criteria should control the development.
  7. Explicit and conscious design activities: The development process should contain dedicated design activities.
  8. A professional attitude: The development process should be conducted by effective multidisciplinary teams.
  9. Usability champion: Usability experts should be involved from the start of project to the very end.
  10. Holistic design: All aspects that influence the future use situation should be developed in parallel.
  11. Process customization: TheUCSDprocessmust be specified, adapted and implemented locally ineach organization. Usability cannot be achieved without a user-centered process. There is, however,no one-size-fits-all process.
  12. A user-centered attitude must be established: UCSD requires a user-centered attitude throughout theproject team, the development organization and the client organization.

The typical process flow of UCSD can be visualized as the following steps (based on ISO/TR 18529:2000):

  1. Pre-study and business analysis: It can be anything from a comprehensive analysis of work procedures, business processes, etc., to a brief statement or vision.
  1. Planning the user-centered systems design process: includes setting up the project with resources, activities, roles, methods, etc.
  1. Do iterative UCSD /Usability DesignActivities: The usability design process approximately.
  1. Formal Summative Evaluation: It covers the usability of the resulting system, as opposed to the formative evaluations used in the usability design process to learn about details in the design .
  1. Introduce and Operate the System: includes installation, change management, user training, evaluating long-term effects and so forth.

The focus of UCDS is all about “changing the attitude among all professionals involved in the software development process” and these set of 10 principles are key for the “user-centered systems design process” which helps in giving “equal weight to interaction design, analysis and evaluation, combining interaction design, and usability engineering”.

Usability Design

The Usability Design is roughly a subset of the UCSD process that matches the “Do Iterative UCSD” step of the UCSD process.

Further study

The usability design outlines the steps in the development process involving usability design aspects. The process can be divided into three main phases:

  1. Requirements analysis: This step is synonymous with planning and analysis phase of typical software development life cycle(SDLC).
  2. Growing software with iterative design: This is the design and testing phase and development phase of typical SDLC.
  3. Deployment: This is same as deployment phase of typical SDLC.

http://samirshomepage.wordpress.com/2013/09/23/dont-get-confused-ucd-vs-ucsd/

(c) 2012-14, Samir Dash

Don’t get Confused: UCD vs UCSD


(Originally first published on July 4, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140702070019-9377042-don-t-get-confused-ucd-vs-ucsd/ )

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


In my last posts I discussed about Usability Design and User-Centered Design (UCD) and User-Centered Systems Design (UCSD). But many confuse between these two. So in the following I am trying to differentiate these two:

UCD vs UCSD

UCD is differs from the UCSD in the following areas:

  1. Goal: The goal of UCSD is more on the process than the user so as to make the final product/system more usable. UCD rather focuses more on “users” of the product and not the design process. More focus is spent on understanding the user and their need.
  2. Process vs. Techniques Set: UCSD is about system development where as UCD is mostly a set of tecniques and process sets to be used with in UCSD
  3. Perception: The DNA of UCSD is about changing the mindset of the professionals in the development process so that the designing aspect of usability can be put into practice freely and with higher priority. The UCD process is not about the changing perception about the priority of the design in the whole process.
  4. Broadness: UCSD covers the whole process that includes the areas which are even not part of “designing” whereas UCD can be seen as a subset of UCSD focusing of the “design process sets”.

UCD Models and Process

There 3 different models that support UCD in varying degrees and follow the ISO standard Human-Centred Design for interactive systems:

  1. Cooperative Design: This involves designers and users on an equal footing.
  2. Participatory Design (PD): Inspired by Cooperative Design, focusing on the participation of users
  3. Contextual Design: “Customer-Centered Design” in the actual context, including some ideas from Participatory Design.

All these UCD models involve more or less a set of activities grouped into the following steps mentioned below:

  1. Planning: in this stage the UCD process is planned and if needed customized. It involves understanding the business needs and setting up the goals and objectives of the UX activities. Also forming the right team for the UX needs and if needed hiring specialties fall into this step.
  2. User data collection and analysis: This step involves data collection through different applicable methodologies such as user interviews, developing personas, conducting scenarios , user-cases and user stories analysis, setting up measurable goals.
  3. Designing and Prototyping : This involves activities like card sorting, conducting IA, wire framing and developing prototyping.
  4. Content writing: this involves content refinement and writing for web and similar activities.
  5. Usability testing: This involves is a set of activities of conducting tests and heuristic evaluations and reporting to allow refinement to the product. However Usability Testing can have its set of steps involving similar activities such as planning , Team forming, testing , review and data analysis and reporting.

All these are similar to most of the steps that fall under Usability Design as UCD can be seen as a subset of process with in Usability Design.

So many processes: What is where?

After going through multi relation models in all these processes and sub process discussed in this post and the previously discussed posts, it might be little confusing to visual all the overlapping and dependable process sets. So here is a simple representation diagram that roughly shows the overlapping relations:

 

(c) 2013-14, Samir Dash

 

 

User-Centered Systems Design (UCSD)


(Originally first published on July 2, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140702065559-9377042-user-centered-systems-design-ucsd/ )

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


User-Centered Systems Design (UCSD) is set of “usability design” process focusing on usability throughout “the entire development process and further throughout the system life cycle”. It is based on the following key principle:

  1. User focus: The goals of the activity, the work domain or context of use, the users’ goals, tasks and needs should control the development.
  2. Active user involvement: Representative users should actively participate, early and continuously throughout the entire development process and throughout the system life cycle.
  3. Evolutionary systems development: The systems development should be both iterative and incremental.
  4. Simple design representations: The design must be represented in such ways that it can be easily understood by users and all other stakeholders.
  5. Prototyping: Early and continuously, prototypes should be used to visualize and evaluate ideas and design solutions in cooperation with the users.
  6. Evaluate use in context: Baseline usability goals and design criteria should control the development.
  7. Explicit and conscious design activities: The development process should contain dedicated design activities.
  8. A professional attitude: The development process should be conducted by effective multidisciplinary teams.
  9. Usability champion: Usability experts should be involved from the start of project to the very end.
  10. Holistic design: All aspects that influence the future use situation should be developed in parallel.
  11. Process customization: The UCSD process must be specified, adapted and implemented locally in each organization. Usability cannot be achieved without a user-centered process. There is, however, no one-size-fits-all process.
  12. A user-centered attitude must be established: UCSD requires a user-centered attitude throughout the project team, the development organization and the client organization.

The typical process flow of UCSD can be visualized as the following steps (based on ISO/TR 18529:2000):

  1. Pre-study and business analysis: It can be anything from a comprehensive analysis of work procedures, business processes, etc., to a brief statement or vision.
  1. Planning the user-centered systems design process: includes setting up the project with resources, activities, roles, methods, etc.
  1. Do iterative UCSD /Usability Design Activities: The usability design process approximately.
  1. Formal Summative Evaluation: It covers the usability of the resulting system, as opposed to the formative evaluations used in the usability design process to learn about details in the design .
  1. Introduce and Operate the System: includes installation, change management, user training, evaluating long-term effects and so forth.

The focus of UCDS is all about “changing the attitude among all professionals involved in the software development process” and these set of 10 principles are key for the “user-centered systems design process” which helps in giving “equal weight to interaction design, analysis and evaluation, combining interaction design, and usability engineering”.

—–

(c)2012-13 : Samir Dash. All rights reserved.

Usability Design and User-Centered Design (UCD)


(Originally first published on July 2, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140702070557-9377042-usability-design-and-user-centered-design-ucd/  )

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


The Usability Design is roughly a subset of the UCSD process that matches the “Do Iterative UCSD” step of the UCSD process.

The usability design outlines the steps in the development process involving usability design aspects. The process can be divided into three main phases:

  1. Requirements analysis: This step is synonymous with planning and analysis phase of typical software development life cycle(SDLC).
  2. Growing software with iterative design: This is the design and testing phase and development phase of typical SDLC.
  3. Deployment: This is same as deployment phase of typical SDLC.

User-centered design (UCD) is a set of design processes in which “the needs, wants, and limitations of end users of a product are given extensive attention at each stage”. It is characterized as a multi-stage problem solving process involving designers who take the lead responsibility in foreseeing and solving the usability problems the users are likely to face while interacting with or using the system/product. UCD focuses on understanding the behavioral aspect of the user interacting for the first time so that the user’s learning curve in using the system can be evaluated in order to optimize and reduce it. User-centered design philosophy emphasizes on optimizing the product around “how users can, want, or need to use the product, rather than forcing the users to change their behavior to accommodate the product”.

Constantine and Lockwood define UCD as :

‘. . . loose collection of human-factors techniques united under a philosophy of understanding users and involving them in design’. . . ‘Although helpful, none of these techniques can replace good design. User studies can easily confuse what users want with what they truly need. Rapid iterative prototyping can often be a sloppy substitute for thoughtful and systematic design. Most importantly, usability testing is a relatively inefficient way to find problems you can avoid through proper design’. (‘. . . loose collection of human-factors techniques united under a philosophy of understanding users and involving them in design’. . . ‘Although helpful, none of these techniques can replace good design. User studies can easily confuse what users want with what they truly need. Rapid iterative prototyping can often be a sloppy substitute for thoughtful and systematic design. Most importantly, usability testing is a relatively inefficient way to find problems you can avoid through proper design’.

Putting it straightforward UCD is all about 4 factors which are mostly related to the end user :

  1. Needs of users
  2. Limitations of users
  3. Preferences of users
  4. Business objectives of the product.

This helps in achieving the following benefits:

  1. User satisfaction through more user friendly product experience
  2. Increase in customer /user loyalty.
  3. Making the product more relevant and valuable for the user
  4. Product / system is more value added as users

—–

(c)2012-13 : Samir Dash. All rights reserved.

The ABCs of UX: The Diverse Disciplines (Part 3/3)


(Originally first published on July 4, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140704153044-9377042-the-abcs-of-ux-the-diverse-disciplines-part-3-3/ )

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


The current post is the 3rd in the series of 3 posts, where I would like to clarify the definitions and concepts that are core to our context covering User Experience (UX), Information Architecture(IA) and Interaction Design (IxD).

What is a “Mental Model” exactly?

A mental model is “a person’s intuition of how something works based on past experiences, knowledge, or common sense”. When you see a book you already know how to use it (i.e. read it) as this understanding of the usage of a book is bound with your past experience and the expectation aroused thereby using the book. This typical expectation of how a thing works or the expectation regarding the workflow of an object the user faces is all about a “mental model”. When it is the case of an online experience or a software usage, users expect a certain flow based on both previous experiences and an expectation on what the experience should be. Understanding and catering to this kind of user’s expectation in an intuitive manner is the most critical part of the UX design process.

During “usability testing” of a software product, it is measured against the following five important facets:

  1. Useful:if the product enables users to solve real problems in an acceptable way and as a practical utility whether it supports the user’s own task model.
  2. Findable: if user can find what he is looking for through his interaction with the system.
  3. Accessible:if the system can be used by persons with some type of disability such as visual, hearing and psychomotor.
  4. Usable:if system enables users to solve real problems in an acceptable way
  5. Desirable: if the user is emotionally motivated to use the system
  6. Meaningful: It must improve the value and customer satisfaction to be more meaningful in the context.

Fig : 1

On a close look it is clear that all of these are all related to the users’ expectations. If any of these aspects do not match the expectations of the users, the usability of the product/system decorates. So, in UX design process, the most important task is to match or at least bring the design closer to the mental model of the users.

One of the best definition about mental models as they relate to software and usability can be found out in a 1999 article by Davidson, Dove, and Weltz titled Mental Models and Usability:

For most cognitive scientists today, a mental model is an internal scale-model representation of an external reality. It is built on-the-fly, from knowledge of prior experience, schema segments, perception, and problem-solving strategies. A mental model contains minimal information. It is unstable and subject to change. It is used to make decisions in novel circumstances. A mental model must be “runnable” and able to provide feedback on the results. Humans must be able to evaluate the results of action or the consequences of a change of state.

Most-likely Mental Model

The problem with matching the interfacedesign and system flow with the mental model of the users is that :

  1. There is no fool proof approach that can provide insight into the target users’ mental models
  2. Different users have different mental models. Different users have different perceptions, past experiences, there by their mental models are most likely not the same.

In real life, an interface will never match up with every mental model because the number of possible models ranges from one to millions. So the trick is to create interfaces to match the most-likely mental models for the target users.

To determine what can be the criteria of a most likely mental model, typically different user personas, research, prototyping and user testing tools and methodologies are used.

Conceptual Model

“Conceptual Model” is a term used to represent the engineered interface that is provided to the user. For example, we can think about iBooks app on an iPad as a conceptual model being offered to the user

Fig: 2

To make UX successful, the “conceptual model” is designed to come close to the “mental model”.

If the user has read/seen any physical book, then, in this case, it will be easy for him to use iBooks app as it’s interaction approach is similar to a real-life book where the user can turn pages to read. However, iBooks has been designed by some engineer that presents a similar experience to the real book . This conceptual model in this case matches with the expectations of the user who has never interacted with the app, but has some preconceptions regarding it .His mental model about the app is formed from his past experience of interacting with the real physical book.

Challenges in Usability Measurement and Metrics

All the models and facets of usability described above have some limitations as it is not straight forward to implement them to some kind of metrics by which the usability goals can be measured. This is mostly because, there is comparatively little information about exactly how to select a set of usability factors to form a metrics to measure in the context of a software development lifecycle having aspects such as business needs and goals, management objectives, resource limitation on product development.

Even though in generic terms “usability” refers to a set of multiple concepts, such as execution time, performance, user satisfaction and ease of learning (“learnability”), taken together, it is still not been defined homogeneously to a level useful for creating a fool-proof metrics.

A challenge with definitions of usability is that it is very difficult to specify what its characteristics and its attributes should be, in particular, because the nature of the characteristics and required attributes depend on the context in which the product is used. (Alain Abran et. al. , 2002)

For such reasons, there is always a scope to create a consolidated usability model and its factors that can work for creating a metrics useful for software development life cycles.

A List of Factors for Generic and Consolidated Usability Model

As discussed above, here is a very generic consolidated usability model that can be used to create a metrics for a practical usability review.

The suggested model covers most of the commonly reviewed “factors” of different software products and systems which can be customized depending on the context or the need of the project:

  1. Effectiveness:This factor can be used to measure if the user is able to complete the tasks on product or the system (e.g. a website).
  2. Efficiency:It measures if the user is able to carry out the tasks, accurately and quickly.
  3. Findable: if user can find what he is looking for through his interaction with the system.
  4. Expectations: this measures if the user mental model matches with the conceptual model offered through the system.
  5. Emotions: This measures how the user feels while and after using the system.
  6. Satisfaction/ Experience:This measures if the overall system usage for the user is positive and if the user would like to revisit/reuse the system in case of the need (or will he look for alternatives).This is basically the subjective responses from users about their feelings when using the system.
  7. Productive: This measures if the amount of useful output that is resulted from user interaction with the system.
  8. Learnability: This measures how easy it for the user to master the usage of the functionalities.
  9. Safety: It measures the level of safety of the user and his information during and after the period of operation
  10. Accessibility:It measures the capability of the system to be used by persons with some type of disability such as visual, hearing and psychomotor.
  11. Usefulness:It measure is the product enables users to solve real problems in an acceptable way and as a practical utility whether it supports the user’s own task model.
  12. Universality: It measures if the system has universal appeal and enables the users from diverse cultural backgrounds and locale.
  13. Trustfulness:This especially measures if the user trusts the system for critical usage (such as using credit cards on an e-commerce site)
  14. Meaningfulness:It must improve the value and customer satisfaction to be more meaningful in the context..

Based on the above factors, usability metrics can be prepared to conduct usability testing on the system.

(c) 2013-14, Samir Dash

The ABCs of UX: The Diverse Disciplines (Part 2/3)


(Originally first published on July 4, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140704151444-9377042-the-abcs-of-ux-the-diverse-disciplines-part-2-3/

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


The current post is the 2nd in the series of 3 posts, where I would like to clarify the definitions and concepts that are core to our context covering User Experience (UX),Information Architecture(IA) and Interaction Design (IxD).

Interaction Design (IxD)

Wikipedia defines Interaction Design as:

In design, human–computer interaction, and software development,interaction design, often abbreviated IxD, is “about shaping digital things for people’s use”

Interaction design involves attributes of several related disciplines such as :

  1. Design research
  2. Human–computer interaction
  3. Cognitive psychology
  4. Human factors and ergonomics
  5. Industrial design
  6. Architecture
  7. User interface design

Interaction design focuses more on human behavior through scientific tools and statistics, even when it is in fact is opposed to the disciplines which focus on “how things are” . Even when it uses tools that span across design and engineering domains, by it’s ability to perform “synthesis and imagining things as they might be” makes it a part of “designing” field.

In his book Designing Interactions. Gillian Crampton Smith, defined 4 dimensions of Interaction Design, to which Kevin Silver later added the 5 and the most important dimension (i.e. behaviour).

Fig:1

Fig. 1 represents the 5 dimensions of IxD namely:

  1. Words: This dimension defines the interactions. Words are the interaction that users use to interact with.
  2. Visual Representations: The visual representations are the things that the user interacts with on the interface. These may include but not limited to “typography, diagrams, icons, and other graphics”
  3. Physical objects or space: The space with which the user interacts is the third dimension of interaction design. It defines the space or objects “with which or within which users interact with”
  4. Time: The time with which the user interacts with the interface. Some examples of this are “content that changes over time such as sound, video, or animation”
  5. Behavior: The behavior defines the users’ actions reaction to the interface and how they respond to it.

Many confuse between Interaction Design with User Interface design, as in most cases interaction design is associated with the designing activities of interfaces. However Interaction Design focuses more “on the aspects of the interface that define and present its behavior over time, with a focus on developing the system to respond to the user’s experience and not the other way around”.

User Interface Design (UI)

Wikipedia defines it as :

User interface designor user interface engineering is the design ofcomputers, appliances, machines, mobile communication devices, software applications, and websites with the focus on the user’s experience and interaction. The goal of user interface design is to make the user’s interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals—what is often called user-centered design. Good user interface design facilitates finishing the task at hand without drawing unnecessary attention to itself. Graphic design may be utilized to support its usability. The design process must balance technical functionality and visual elements (e.g., mental model) to create a system that is not only operational but also usable and adaptable to changing user needs.

User Interface design is somewhat “the form-giving counterpart to interaction design”. User Interface design differs from interaction design primarily in “ its focus on the behavior of artifacts rather than the behavior of humans”.In UI, the center of all the focus is artifacts that makes the interface, where as in case of IxD it is the human behavior that takes the center stage.

In case of a Software production process the UI is more associated with the Graphical User interface designer. In industrial design case, UI is more tilted towards the industrial designer.

Fig: 2

The Fig:2, shows various disciplines that contribute to User Interface Design.

Usability and Mental Models: Foundations of UX

What is Usability?

In 1998, the International Standards Organization (ISO),the organization well known for development of standards for industrial processes and product quality, defined“usability” as :

the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in a particular environment. (ISO 9241)

ISO model prescribed the following 3 criteria as components of usability:

  1. Effectiveness: accuracy and completeness with which specified users can achieve specified goals in a particular environment
  2. Efficiency: the resources expended in relation to the accuracy and completeness of the goals achieved
  3. Satisfaction: the comfort and acceptability of the work system to its users and other people affected by its use.

Fig: 3

One year later , in 1999, Cosantine and Lockwood defined ‘usability’ as:

being composed of the learnability, retainability, efficiency of use, and user satisfaction of a product.

So basically it was an upgrade to the existing “usability” definition, with the addition of two new components:

  1. Learnability: the product usability can be learned by the user
  2. Retainability: the product usability an be retained by the user.

Basically the addition of the above two components gave rise to the concepts of “mental model” of the user and it’s role in usability.

System Models

During 1980-90’s many “system models” evolved. These models were actually representation of a system from different stake holders’ perception, namely: the user, the programmer and the designer.

Fig:4

Among the evolved models, the most notables were that of Norman , Cooperand IBM:

  1. The model based on the programmer’s perception:
    This was the way that a system works from the programmer’s perspective
  2. User’s Mental Model:
    The way that the user perceives that the system works.
  3. The model based on the designer’s perception:

The way the designer represents the program to the user, including presentation, interaction, and object relationships.

(To be continued)

(2) 2013-14, Samir Dash

The ABCs of UX: The Diverse Disciplines (Part 1/3)


(Originally first published on July 4, 2014 at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140704013122-9377042-the-abcs-of-ux-the-diverse-disciplines-part-1-3/ )

Also, this article is a part of the title UX Simplified: Models & Methodologies by Samir Dash (ISBN: 978-1-3115-9110-4 / ASIN: B00LPQ22O0 ).  Available at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00LPQ22O0/


 

“To understand what the user is looking for in the things he is looking at.”

The current post is the first one in the series of 3 posts, where I would like to clarify the definitions and concepts that are core to our context covering User Experience (UX)Information Architecture(IA) and Interaction Design (IxD).

User Experience (UX)

User experience (UX) is a convergence of several disciplines. There is no final fool-proof list of disciplines which come together to form it. But yes, there are many popular explanations by social scientists, industrial designers and information architects which describe it as a combination of a verity of disciplines.

Fig: 1

The most popular and accepted compilation of disciplines is shown in Fig 1 where it is represented as a combination of :

  1. Information Architecture (IA)
  2. Visual Design
  3. Industrial Design
  4. Human Factors
  5. Interaction Design (IxD)
  6. Human – Computer Interaction (HCI)
  7. Architecture

There are variations available to this where commercial aspects are added to it . Fig 2 represents such a case.

In Fig:2, you can see the UX definition has been seen as all those disciplines which can work together to provide a solution that can deliver “customer with a harmonious and consistent experience”.

If you notice all the aspects such as “branding” and “customer service” are related with emotional aspect of human behavior. So user experience is also about emotions and psychological dimensions of customer’s perceptions about the product. Wikipedia also defines “User Experience” as :

User experience (UX or UE) involves a person’s emotions about using a particular product, system or service. User experience highlights the experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human-computer interaction and product ownership. Additionally, it includes a person’s perceptions of the practical aspects such as utility, ease of use and efficiency of the system. User experience is subjective in nature because it is about individual perception and thought with respect to the system. User experience is dynamic as it is constantly modified over time due to changing circumstances and new innovations.”

Similarly ISO 9241-210 defines user experience as:

a person’s perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service”. According to the ISO definition user experience includes all the users’ emotions, beliefs, preferences, perceptions, physical and psychological responses, behaviors and accomplishments that occur before, during and after use. The ISO also list three factors that influence user experience: system, user and the context of use.

So basically, “User Experience” deals with the “How” factor of the product or system rather than it’s “What” factor. Most of the customers buy the product not because simply “what it does”, rather the “how” factor takes priority when it comes to choose from a several similar products.

We will dive deep throughout this series, but before that let’s see clear similar jargons.

Information Architecture (IA)

While exploring UX in previous section, we saw that Information Architecture (IA) is one of the contributing disciplines which form the total User Experience. During 1960’s ,Richard Saul Wurman, an architect by profession having skills of a graphic designer, author and an editor of numerous fine graphics related books, coined the term “Information Architecture”. He mostly developed concepts “ in the ways in which information about urban environments could be gathered, organized, and presented in meaningful ways to architects, to urban planners, to utility and transport engineers, and especially to people living in or visiting cities”. Later these impacted a set of disciplines such as library- and information-science (LIS) , graphic design and in recent years the world wide web (www). During 1990’s , with the evolution of the Web, there rose the need to rethink the presentation of library-catalog information as this information has been moved into online public-access catalogs, and in part to the proliferation of information on the Web itself. So during 90’s IA has taken on something of a connotation of applying especially to the organization of information on the World-Wide Web.

Basically Information Architecture (IA), all about organizing information in a meaningful way so that the user can easily find it when needed through proper organizationnavigation,labelingandsearchingsystems.IA also takes care of the process that ensures that there is no information breakdown or explosion with the scaling of information overtime.

Fig: 3

Fig:3 represents the 3 basic ingredients of IA, namely:

Users: This represents those who will use the product or system, their “information seeking behaviour” and their needs. Any of the following roles/skills/features can be applied to them:

  1. Personas
  2. Ethnography
  3. Usability Testing
  4. Expressing User Needs

Content: This is what is presented to the users through the product or system. This includes the data or information that is offered, along with its aspects such as volume, metadata, structure and organization. Sample skills/roles/features/concepts revolving around content are:

  1. Indexing
  2. Cataloguing
  3. Site Architecture
  4. Writing
  5. Content management
  6. Navigation
  7. Labeling
  8. Search mechanism

Context: This is what gives meaning to the content that is being served to the user. This can have the attributes like business model, business value, resource, resource constraints, culture etc. The following features/roles/skills are associated with context:

  1. Defining business requirements
  2. Project management
  3. Business model analysis
  4. ROI calculation
  5. Client management
  6. Technical constraints

(To be continued…)

(c) Samir Dash , 2013 -14